Nargis, Clouds, Methane, Keith Haring,
Nargis Burma floods - a huge amount of Burma underwater
ABSENCE OF CLOUDS CAUSED PRE-HUMAN SUPERGREENHOUSE PERIODS
In a world without human-produced pollution, biological productivity controls cloud formation and may be the lever that caused supergreenhouse episodes during the Cetaceous and Eocene, according to Penn State paleoclimatologists.
.. the Cretaceious and Eocene atmosphere never exceeded 4x the current CO2 level, which is not enough for the models to create supergreenhouse conditions. .. Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, looked for another way .. where mean annual temperatures in the tropics were above 100°F °F and polar temperatures were ca 50°F Changing the Earth's albedo – .. by changing cloud cover will produce supergreenhouse.. (April 11) issue of Science.
Normal cloud cover reflects about 30% of the sun's energy .. looking for a scenario that allowed in 6 to 10% more sunlight.
..human generated aerosols, pollutants, serve as cloud condensation nuclei," ..
Today, the air contains 1,000..cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in a cc.. Pristine ocean areas ..algae produce dimethylsulfide that eventually becomes the CCNs of sulfuric acid or methane sulfonic acid.
Algae's productivity depends on .. nutrients.. come to the surface by upwelling.. Warming would lead to ocean stratification and less upwelling.
"The Cetaceous was biologically unproductive due to less upwelling in the ocean and thermal stress on land and in the sea," says Kump. "That means fewer cloud condensation nuclei."
What they found was that the clouds were less bright and that there were also fewer clouds. If they lowered the production of biogenic CCNs too much, their model created a world with remarkable warming inconsistent with life. However, they could alter the productivity in the model to recreate the temperature regime during supergreenhouse events.
"The model reduces cloud cover from about 64% to 55% which lets in a large amount of direct sunlight,".
April 10, 2008
[looks like increasing clouds may be the easiest way to cool the Earth]
.. the first glacial/interglacial record of the carbon isotopic composition of methane (?13CH4)..
Glacial concentration.. 350 ppbv ... 700 ppbv during the last glacial/interglacial transition superimposed by rapid shifts of.. 200 ppbv ..
..human methane emissions..CH4 concentrations to .. 1750 ppbv.
..tropical wetlands emitted substantially less CH4 during glacials; most likely caused by changes in monsoonal.. Together with a reduced atmospheric lifetime, this explains major parts of the glacial CH4 reduction. In addition, boreal methane sources located in wetlands .. switched off during the glacial ..However, ..quickly reactivated when rapid climate warming
..forest fires emit a considerable amount of CH4,..surprisingly constant over time.
..no signs of CH4 emissions by a destabilization of marine gas hydrate reservoirs when climate was warming..
.. .European Science Foundation (ESF), EPICA .
vulcan project video CO2 pumping out of USA
Marijuana may block Alzheimer's
...Dr Susanne Sorensen
...a dramatically reduced functioning of cannabinoid receptors in diseased brain tissue.
.. effect of cannabinoids on rats injected with the amyloid p.rotein that forms Alzheimer's plaques.
Those animals who were also given a dose of a cannabinoid performed much better in tests of their mental functioning.
..rats that also received the cannabinoid showed no sign of microglia activation.
Using cell cultures, the researchers confirmed that cannabinoids counteracted the activation of microglia and thus reduced inflammation.
Researcher Dr Maria de Ceballos said: "These findings that cannabinoids work both to prevent inflammation and to protect the brain may set the stage for their use as a therapeutic approach for Alzheimer's disease."
22 February, 2005
In 1980 on the A train I noticed these chalk drawings, done on the black paper placed over expired ads in the subway stations.
I planned to photo these barking dogs and radiant children, but got sidetracked. What a brilliant calendar thay would have made
what ease, or unease underscores this perfection?
TUTANKHAMUN’S GOLDEN SANDALS
xkcd gets weird
LHC (large picture of)
Nargis, Clouds, Methane, Keith Haring